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Which Type of Apple Sunburn is in Your Orchard?

Monday May 23, 2016 1:30pm
Sunburn browning is the most prevalent type of sunburn, and is caused by high fruit surface temperatures (FST) and ultraviolet radiation. The FST required to induce sunburn browning varies by cultivar, but is in the range of 113 to 120 °F (45 to 49 °C).

Powdery Mildew of Cherry: New Fungicide Tools and Resistance Management Guidelines

Tuesday May 17, 2016 10:00am
As of spring 2011 cherry growers in Eastern Washington have several new fungicides at their disposal for managing powdery mildew. New products included in the powdery mildew toolbox include Adament (tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin), Quash (metconazole), and Unicorn (tebuconazole + sulfur).

Combining Leafroller and Codling Moth Control Tactics

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
The period of time when overwintering leafroller (LR) larvae are most susceptible to the new insecticides overlaps with the beginning of the codling moth (CM) egg laying period. Some new insecticides will kill overwintering leafroller larvae as well as codling moth eggs that are laid on top of the insecticide residues.

Bt Applications for Leafrollers

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that must be eaten by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) to be effective. Bt is a great material for leafroller control because it is specific and has little effect on natural enemies. However, it must be applied 2-3 times to be effective when leafroller populations are high. Experience has also shown that in the spring, the high temperatures need to be above 65°F for 3 or more days so that larvae have a chance to feed on it before sunlight breaks it down. DAS provides forecast temperatures for all stations in the "Weather Forecast" and in the "Show Data Grid" table so that you can decide whether or not to use Bt or other recommended chemicals.

Monitoring Adult Codling Moth

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Adult codling moth (CM) are monitored with traps baited with either CM pheromones or a mixture of pheromones and an attractant (Combo D/A lure). Pheromone traps should be placed in the upper 1/3 of the tree canopy before first apple blossoms open or by 100 DD since January 1 whichever comes first. If you are not using mating disruption...

New CM Control Strategies

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
A new method of controlling codling moth has been developed at WSU where timing of the sprays is altered to take advantage of the slow start of egg laying.

Preserving Biocontrol Agents

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Natural enemies (NE) are crucial to the long-term stability of management programs. Pesticides need to be chosen not only on the basis of efficacy against the pests, but also by minimizing their effect on natural enemies. DAS provides both the effects on pests and on the key natural enemies.

Leafroller and Codling Moth Movement During the Season

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Movement of codling moth and leafrollers into your orchard can be the start of serious damage. Both CM and leafrollers can easily fly 5-7 miles in a single night and their reproduction is as high as those that do not fly. Although 5-7 mile flights are common, the likelihood of the moths coming to your orchard in high numbers is directly related to wind speed, distance from the source, and the environment in between the source and your orchard.

Monitoring Codling Moth Damage

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Monitoring codling moth at the end of each generation gives a good indication of the success of your management program and where in the orchard damage occurs. The sampling protocol for the Taiwan protocol can give you good accuracy and is simple to implement. Banding trees can serve as monitoring and control technique.

Use Pesticides Wisely to Avoid Resistance

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Repeated use of pesticides with the same mode-of-action used in the orchard can accelerate the development of insecticide resistance. WSU recommends that when you choose insecticides, keep track of which ones are being used so that you alternate materials with the different modes-of-action (shown in DAS) between generations.

Spider Mite Control During the Summer

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
There are currently lots of options to control spider mites in orchards. However, preventing outbreaks by avoiding pesticides toxic to predatory mites and their alternative prey is always first choice. If uncontrolled, spider mites can go through a single generation in 7-10 days during summer and increase their numbers exponentially. Monitoring helps to follow spider mite population growth and to intervene when necessary.

Bin Piles Are a Source of CM Off the Normal Model

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Bin piles placed in the orchard are often a source of codling moth. Larvae spin up in the bins in the fall and emerge when the bins are placed in the field. Because the bins in the center of a pile are insulated from temperature changes, adults emerge from bins at different times than predicted by the model.

Predicting Third Generation of CM

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Predicting the extent of the third generation of codling moth (CM) is based on a statistical relationship of the degree-days historically found on 1 August and at the end of the season on 1 November. We update this prediction roughly every 10 days after 15 August because the DD prediction for 1 November gets more accurate as we get closer.

Taiwan Protocol and Export Required Sampling

Monday May 16, 2016 1:30pm
Those expecting to export apples to Taiwan need to have their training updated every two years and use the sampling protocols negotiated with Taiwan. Three Orchard and Field Bin Sampling Protocol training sessions are scheduled for August.

How Does Codling Moth Mating Disruption Work?

Friday February 19, 2016 2:38pm
Mating disruption dispensers work by releasing synthetic pheromone which prevents or delays males from finding females, thus reducing the reproductive rate of the population. Now is the time to decide which dispensers to place in the orchard so you have enough time for ordering and to organize your work force.

Which Leafroller Species is in Your Orchard?

Friday February 19, 2016 2:38pm
There are two leafrollers commonly found in Washington orchards: Pandemis leafroller (PLR) and Obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR). The phenology of the two species is quite different and you need to be sure which species you have for proper management and use the correct model on DAS. PLR used to be more common, but in the past 10 years, OBLR has displaced PLR from many of the production areas.

Delayed Dormant Sprays for Leafrollers

Friday February 19, 2016 2:38pm
Pandemis leafroller (PLR) and oblique-banded leafroller (OBLR) have different phenologies which are well documented on DAS. Delayed dormant sprays can work well for PLR, but are generally too early in the season for efficacy against larvae of OBLR.

Apply Mating Disruption Dispensers Before First Moths Fly

Friday February 19, 2016 2:38pm
Mating disruption dispensers work by releasing synthetic pheromone which prevents or delays males from finding and mating with females. Therefore, dispensers need to be placed in your orchard before the first moths fly and mate. First moth flight (= biofix) occurs at around 175 DD. We recommend to place pheromone traps before first apple blossoms open or by 100 DD whichever comes first.

Oriental Fruit Moth Monitoring Required for Export to Mexico or Canada

Friday February 19, 2016 2:38pm
All stone fruit packed for shipment to Mexico or British Columbia, Canada must be inspected and be certified as free of oriental fruit moth (OFM). OFM must be monitored with traps from first adult flight throughout the season.
Decision Aid System v. 6.3.33 (DAS) - Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center
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